Antenna & Wave propagation | Department of Electrical Engineering

Antenna & Wave propagation

Course Summary

This course covers in depth knowledge of Basic antenna principals, concepts of antenna wave propagation, antenna theory, design and measurements.

Course Aims

Providing knowledge of different types of antenna.
Knowledge of antenna measurement methods
Knowledge of radio wave propagation in atmosphere

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of the course, students will be able to:
a) Able to explain the basic concept of antenna
b) Able to design the antenna for given application
c) Able to characterise and analyse the antenna from antenna parameters

Curriculum Content

1. Fundamental Concepts: Concept of Radiation (physical meaning), Potential functions & Electromagnetic field, Network Theorems, Radiation Pattern, near-field and far-field regions, basic parameters of antenna (directivity, gain, beam-width, effective aperture, polarization, input impedance, radiation efficiency, radiation resistance and efficiency etc.), Friis transmission equation, Methods of Excitation.
2. Radiation from Wires and Loops: Infinitesimal dipole, finite-length dipole, dipoles for mobile communication, small circular loop.
3. Aperture Antennas: Huygens’ principle, radiation from rectangular and circular apertures, design considerations, Babinet’s principle, Radiation from sectoral and pyramidal horns, design concepts, Fourier Transformation in aperture antenna.
4. Travelling Wave antennas: Analysis and Design of Rhombic antennas and V antenna.
5. Broadband Antennas: Broadband concept, Log-periodic antennas, frequency independent antennas.
6. Reflector antennas: Parabolic reflectors and reflector optics.
7. Microstrip Antennas: Basic characteristics of microstrip antennas, feeding methods, methods of analysis, design of rectangular patch antennas.
8. Antenna Measurements: Antenna Radiation pattern measurements, Measurement of antenna beam width and gain, Polarization measurements. Measurement of radiation resistance, S parameter.
9. Antenna Arrays: Analysis of uniformly spaced arrays with uniform and non-uniform excitation amplitudes, extension to planar arrays, Binomial arrays.
10. Wave Propagation: Propagation of radio waves, mode of propagation Ground wave propagation- Attenuation characteristics for ground wave propagation, Calculation of field strength at a distance. Sky wave propagation- . atmospheric effects, structure of ionosphere, and its effect on radio waves. Ray path, , ionospheric propagation, skip distance, virtual height, critical frequency, MUF, fading, diversity. Space wave propagation - Reflection from ground for vertically and horizontally polarized waves. Reflection characteristics of earth. Resultant of direct and reflected ray at the receiver. Duct propagation.

Teaching and Learning Strategy

a) Lectures will incorporate break-outs for working in groups on problems
b) Blackboard will be used to share class material, and to enable online discussions.

Teaching and Learning Strategy Description of Work Class Hours Out-of-Class Hours
Lecturers Class room teaching 40 hours 80 hours
Experiments Measurement of antenna parameter & Characterization 20 hours 10hours


Assessment Strategy
Formative Assessment:
a) Laboratory Experiments
b) Quizzes
c) Midterm Exam
Summary Assessment
a) Final Exam

Mapping of Learning Outcomes to Assessment Strategy

Assessment Scheme

Type of Assessment Learning Outcome Percentage
Quizzes Based on the previous and current lecture 15
Lab Measurement of antenna parameters 20
Mid term Standard and design based problem 25
End Term Standard and design based problem 40
Total 100%


i. Antenna Theory Analysis and Design by Constantine A. Balanis
ii. E.C. Jordan & K.G. Balmain, Electromagnetic waves & Radiating Systems, PHI, 2007
iii. Antennas and Wave Propagation by J D Kraus
iv. Antenna Theory and Design by Warren L Stutzman and Garry A Thiele
v. R.E.Collins, Antennas and Radio Propagation, Singapore: McGraw Hill, 1985
vi. Antennas for All Applications by J D Kraus and Ronald J Marhefka
vii. Antenna Theory and Design by Robert S Elliot
viii. Microwave Antenna Theory and Design by Samuel Silver

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