CCC + UWE credits
Basic Sciences (BS) - 20 credits, Engineering Sciences (ES) - 12 credits, Major Core - 52 credits, Major Project (I) - 6 credits, Major Project (II) - 12 credits
Circuit Analysis Review of KCL and KVL, Basic Circuit Terminology-Node, loop, mesh, circuit, branch and path. Ideal sources, Source transformation, Star-Delta transformation. AC analysis - Phasor, Complex impedance, complex power, power factor, power triangle, impedance triangle, series and parallel circuits
Network Theorems (A.C. and D.C Circuits) - Mesh and Nodal analysis, Thevenin, Norton, Maximum Power transfer, Millman, Tellegen and Superposition theorem.
Resonance and Transient Analysis
Introduction to Resonance-series and parallel, half power frequency, resonant frequency, Bandwidth, Q factor. Transient Analysis-Step response, Forced Response of RL, RC & RLC Series circuits with Sinusoidal Excitation – Time Constant & Natural frequency of Oscillation – Laplace Transform applications.
Electronic Devices and Components
Review of Energy band diagram- Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors- PN junction diodes and Zener diodes – characteristics, Diode Applications-Rectifiers, Clippers and Clampers. Transistors-PNP and NPN – operation, characteristics and applications, Biasing of Transistors. Operational Amplifiers-Introduction and Applications - Inverting, Non Inverting, Voltage follower, Integrator, differentiator and difference amplifier, Summer, log and Antilog.
Three Phase and Transformers Introduction to three phase, power measurements in three phase. Transformer-Principle of operation, construction, phasor diagram of Ideal and practical transformer with load (R,L,C and their combinations) and no load, equivalent circuit, efficiency and voltage regulation of single phase transformer, O.C. and S.C. tests. Introduction to D.C. Machines.
This course will cover the fundamentals of semiconductors, energy band diagram, excess career concentration, carrier transport phenomenon, and physics of semiconductor junctions: p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor junctions (schottky and ohmic contacts). Bipolar Junction Transistor, MOS capacitors, Field Effect Transistors and other semiconductor devices.
Basic Components of Electrical Circuits (4): Fundamental electrical variables – charge, current, voltage & power; Independent Voltage & Current sources; Ideal circuit elements - Resistor, Capacitor & Inductor; Controlled Source models – VCVS, VCCS, CCVS & CCCS - definitions & circuit models; Concepts of Linearity, Time-invariance & Passivity.
Linear D-C Circuits (5) – Kirchhoff’s laws, Series & Parallel combinations of resistances, Voltage & Current divisions, Analysis of resistive circuits using Loop & Node equations – with independent sources only, and with both independent and controlled sources.
Useful Circuit Analysis Techniques (3) - Superposition, Source transformations, Thevenin’s equivalent, Norton’s equivalent, Maximum Power transfer, Delta-wye conversions.
Time-domain Analysis of LTI Circuits (3) – Natural & forced responses of basic RC & RL circuits, Natural & forced responses of Series & Parallel RLC circuits.
Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis of A-C Circuits (6) – Notions of phasors, impedance, admittance & transfer function; Frequency response vs transient response; Responses of RC, RL & RLC circuits – series & parallel Resonance; Simple passive Filters & their Bode plots; Loop & Node Analysis of a-c circuits with independent & controlled sources.
Basic Amplifiers (6) – Amplifier parameters & controlled source models; Basic Feedback theory - Open-loop Gain, Feedback factor & Closed-loop gain; Effect of feedback on Amplifier parameters; VCVS model of an Opamp; Amplifiers using ideal OPAMP; Frequency response of basic OPAMP-based amplifiers.
Power Amplifier (3) – Small-signal vs Large-signal behaviour of amplifiers; Power amplifier requirements – Power Output & Efficiency; Power amplifier using OPAMP and transistors.
Waveform Generators (5) – Condition of harmonic oscillation; RC and LC oscillator circuits; Timer and Relaxation oscillator based on comparator and RC timing circuit; Square wave generator using 555 Timer and Digital inverters (TTL/CMOS); Crystal clock generator.
D-C Power Supply (3) – Half-wave and Full-wave Rectifiers, Shunt Capacitor filter, Voltage Regulator, Regulated D-C Power Supply.
Wave Shaping Circuits (4) – Diode Clippers; Precision Clippers using Diode and Opamp; Diode Clamp; Peak Detector and Peak Hold circuits; Sample and Hold circuit.
1. Classification and representation of signals and systems, Continuous time & Discrete time signals and systems, Impulse and Step response of a system, linear systems, linearity, time invariance, causality, signal properties -LTI systems, Convolution
2. Fourier series, Fourier transform and properties, relation between Fourier transform and Fourier series, Sampling and reconstruction, FFT, DIT FFT, DIF FFT Algorithm, Inverse DFT and Convolution using FFT
3. Laplace transforms- representation of signals using continuous time complex exponentials, relation of Laplace and Fourier transform, concept of ROC and transfer function- block diagram representation, Inverse Laplace transform, properties, analysis and characterization of LTI systems using Laplace transforms
4. Z transforms- representation of signals using discrete time complex exponentials-properties, inverse Z transforms, ROC, Analysis and characterization of LTI systems using Z transforms, block diagram, transfer functions
5. Introduction to random variable and random process, State space analysis, Introduction to Two port networks and parameters
Overview of network analysis techniques, Network graphs and their applications in network analysis. Two port networks, Z, Y, H and transmission parameters, combination of two ports, Resonance, coupled circuits, scattering matrix and its application in network analysis. Network functions, parts of network functions, obtaining a network function from a given part. Network Transmission criteria; delay and rise time, Elmore’s and other definitions of cascading. Elements of network synthesis techniques. Butterworth and chebyshev Approximation.
Unit‐1 – Transformers:
Different types of transformers and Applications, Transformer Construction, Core and Shell type of transformers, Core Materials and Laminated core , Cooling systems, Ideal Transformer Fundamentals, Practical Transformer, Equivalent circuit of a transformer, testing of Transformers, Polarity Test, OC test , SC Test and Back to Back or Sumpner’s Test
Unit‐2 DC Machines
Principals of Electromechanical energy conversion, Electrical and magnetic circuits
DC machine Constructional details, DC generator – Operation, types of generators, Characteristics, DC winding diagrams
Unit‐3 DC Motors
DC motor operation, characteristics, Principals of Commutation and armature reaction, Starters, Testing of DC machines
Unit‐4 AC Machines
Three phase Induction Machines, Constructional details, Principle of operation, IM characteristics, Starting of IM, Testing of IM, Three phase Synchronous machines, Constructional details, Principle of operation, SM characteristics, Starting of SM, Different types of SM.
Unit‐5 FHP and special Machines
Single phase IM, Universal Machine, PM DC machine, Stepper motors
Review of working of BJT, Introduction to field effect transistor and their small signal equivalent circuit; Biasing and Stability of BJT, JFET and MOSFET circuits and re- model and hybrid model; Small Signal Analysis and Design of various single stage amplifier configurations; multistage Amplifiers; Frequency response (low and high frequency), Multistage frequency effects, Square-wave generators. Differential Amplifier, Operational Amplifier applications and circuits; Feedback Amplifiers, Oscillators.
Review of Fourier series and Transform. Hilbert transform. Band pass signal and system representation. Noise: Resistor noise, Noise temperature, Noise bandwidth, effective input noise temperature, Noise figure. Noise figure & equivalent noise temperature in cascaded circuits. Random process: stationary, power spectral density, Gaussian process, noise. AM, DSBSC, SSB, VSB; Signal representation, generation, and demodulation. FM: signal representation, generation, and demodulation. Superheterodyne receiver, Mixer. Phase recovery with PLL. Noise in AM / FM : AM receivers using coherent detection, AM receivers using envelope detection, FM receivers. Pulse Modulation: PPM, PWM, PAM. PCM: sampling, PAM sampling, quantization, PCM -TDM. Basics of TDMA, FDMA, CDMA & GSM.
Digital Processing of Information – Basic information processing steps – logic and arithmetic; Number Systems and Arithmetic – Positional number systems, Arithmetic operations on binary numbers; Combinational Logic – Basic logic operations, Boolean algebra, Boolean functions, De Morgan’s laws, Truth table and Karnaugh map representations of Boolean functions, Combinational circuit design using gates and multiplexers; Sequential Logic – Latches and Flip-flops, Ripple counters, Sequence generator using flip-flops, State Diagram, Synchronous counters, Shift Registers; Introduction to the Microprocessor – Basic constituents of a processor, Instruction set – machine language and assembly language.
Basic concepts of rotating electrical machines: Electrical degrees and mechanical degrees, flux per pole, frequency of induced emf, generated emf expression, short-pitced coil and full pitched coil, coil span factor (pitch factor) and distribution factor and their physical significance, rotating magnetic field, synchronous speed, mmf variation of concentrated and distributed winding along the air-gap, space harmonics in the mmf wave.
Three phase Induction motors: Construction, types, and working principle of a three phase induction motor (I.M.), concept of slip, rotor induced emf and its frequency, stator and rotor voltage equations, equivalent circuit diagram of a three phase I.M., phasor diagram of the I.M. under no-load and full load conditions, effect of the presence of the air-gap on the no-load power factor, power flow diagram of the I.M., Torque-slip characteristics of the I.M., effect of adding external resistance on the starting torque and the maximum torque of the motor, plugging operating on the motor, IM stability, no-load and blocked rotor tests on the I.M., starting methods on the I.M., power factor improvement of the I.M. by capacitor banks, effect of changing the voltage and frequency on the I.M. performance, high torque squirrel cage I.M., tooth/slot harmonics in the I.M., asynchronous crawling, synchronous crawling, and cogging phenomena.
Single phase Induction motors: Double revolving field theory, torque-slip characteristics of a single phase I.M., stator and rotor governing equations, equivalent circuit diagram of a single phase I.M., no-load and blocked rotor tests on the motor, starting methods of the motor; resistance split phase starting, capacitor split phase starting.
Three phase Synchronous machines: Types of synchronous machines, effect of resistive, inductive, and capacitive loads on the terminal voltage of a three phase synchronous generator, concept of synchronous reactance, emf method to draw the equivalent circuit diagram of the cylindrical rotor synchronous generators, open-circuit and short-circuit characteristics, voltage regulation of the alternators, active and reactive power flow equations for the cylindrical rotor alternators, conditions for reactive power generation and absorption, effect of variation in the field current on the performance of alternators and synchronous motors (connected to the grid), V-curve for the alternators and synchronous motors, over-excited, under-excited, and normal excitation conditions, synchronous condensers, synchronization process; dark lamp method, effect of varying the driving torque of the grid connected alternators, effect of varying the field excitation of the grid connected alternators, starting methods of three phase synchronous motors, two reaction theory of salient pole type synchronous alternators, power-angle characteristics, damper winding and hunting phenomenon.
DC and AC potentiometers, DC and AC bridges, measurement of low and high resistances, measurement of ‘L’ and ‘C’ , Sensitivity of bridge, electrostatic and electromagnetic interference-grounding methods;
Instrument specifications and error analysis;
Principle of analog voltmeter, ammeters, multi meters, single and three-phase wattmeter’s and energy meters, frequency meter and phase meter, Extension of Instrument range: CT and PT;
Basics of digital measurements: A/D and D/A converters, Sample and Hold circuits, Electronic voltmeter, precision rectifiers, true r.m.s. voltmeter, Elements of Digital Multi meter;
Cathode ray oscilloscope, Digital storage oscilloscope;
Hall Effect sensors, clamp-on meter; Temperature sensors: Thermistor, RTD, Thermocouples, Bimetallic strip, pyrometer, Linear and Rotary Displacement sensors: LVDT, Angular encoder, Resolver, Piezoelectric sensors: Piezoelectric effect, pressure and vibration measurement, Strain Gauges: Principle of operation and applications.
Objective of the course:
Electrical machines course is one of the important courses of the Electrical discipline. In this course the different types of DC generators and motors which are widely used in industry are covered and their performance aspects will be studied.
UNIT – I:
Electromechanical Energy Conversion: Electromechanical Energy conversion – forces and torque in magnetic field systems – energy balance – energy and force in a singly excited magnetic field system, determination of magnetic force - co-energy – multi excited magnetic field systems.
UNIT – II:
D.C. Generators & Armature Reaction: D.C. Generators – Principle of operation – Action of commutator – constructional features – armature windings – lap and wave windings – simplex and multiplex windings – use of laminated armature – E. M.F Equation – Problems.
Armature reaction – Cross magnetizing and de-magnetizing AT/pole – compensating winding – commutation – reactance voltage – methods of improving commutation. Applications of DC generators in different types of industries.
UNIT – III:
Types of D.C Generators & Load Characteristics: Methods of Excitation – separately excited and self- excited generators – build-up of E.M.F - critical field resistance and critical speed - causes for failure to self-excite and remedial measures. Load characteristics of shunt, series and compound generators – parallel operation of DC series generators – use of equalizer bar and cross connection of field windings – load sharing.
UNIT – IV:
D.C. Motors & Speed Control Methods: D.C Motors – Principle of operation – Back E.M.F. - Torque equation – characteristics and application of shunt, series and compound motors – Armature reaction and commutation.
Speed control of DC Motors: Armature voltage and field flux control methods. Ward-Leonard system. Principle of 3 point and 4 point starters – protective devices. Applications of DC motors in different types of industries.
UNIT – V:
Testing of D.C. Machines: Losses – Constant & Variable losses – calculation of efficiency – condition for maximum efficiency. Methods of Testing – direct, indirect and regenerative testing – brake test – Swinburne’s test – Hopkinson’s test – Field’s test – Retardation test – separation of stray losses in a DC motor test.
1. Electrical Machinery, Fitzgerald, Mc Grawhill, 6th Edition, 2010
2. Electrical machinery and transformers, Guru and Hiziroglu, Oxford, 2004
3. Principles of electrical machines and Power Electronics - P.C.SEN, Jhon Wiley and sons(Indian reprint)
4. Electrical machines, Nagrath and Kothari, Mcg raw hill, 3rd edition. 2004
Review of scalar and vector fields Electrostatic and Magneto static Fields. Maxwell’s equations: Inconsistency of Amperes law, Continuity equation, Displacement current, Maxwell’s equations, Boundary conditions. EM waves: Wave propagation in free space, Conductors and dielectrics, Polarization, Plane wave propagation in conducting and non-conducting media, Phasor notation, Phase velocity, Group velocity; Reflection at the surface of the conductive medium, Surface Impedance, Depth of penetration. Poynting Vector: Poynting theorem, Poynting Vectors and power loss in a plane conductor. Transmission Line: Transmission line equations, characteristic impedance, open and short circuited lines, standing wave and reflection losses. Impedance matching, Smith Chart, Simple and double stub matching. Antenna & radiation: Scalar and vector potentials. Radiation from a current filament, half-wave dipole and small loop antennas. Antenna characteristics, radiation pattern, radiation intensity, directivity and power gain. Introduction to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
• Introduction and Mathematical Modeling:
Classification of Control Systems: Open-loop and Closed-loop Systems, Effect of feedback, Mathematical modelling of physical/mechanical systems and its electrical equivalents, Translation systems; Rotational systems; Servomechanisms, Servomotors, Synchros, Block Diagram and Signal Flow representation and analysis.
• Time - Domain Analysis
Standard Signals; Time-response of 1st order and 2nd order systems, Dynamic / Transient and Steady-State Response, Steady-State Errors: Error Constants, Type-0, Type-1, and Type-2 Systems, Effect of Poles and Zeroes to Transfer Functions; Dominant Poles, Design and Response of Controllers: P; PI; PD and PID.
• Stability Criterion and Technique
Absolute and Relative Stability, Routh Stability Criterion: BIBO Systems; Necessary Conditions, Relative Stability Analysis, Root Locus Technique: Concept , Construction, and Rules of Root Loci, Effect of Poles and Zeros to G(s)H(s) function
• Frequency – Domain Analysis
Correlation between Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain Analysis, All-Pass System; Non-Minimum-Phase System and Minimum-Phase System, Polar Plot and Bode Plot: Properties and Constructions, Gain Margin and Phase Margin, Nyquist Plot: Nyquist Stability Criterion; Effect of Poles and Zeroes, Constant M and N Circles; Nichols Chart.
• Compensation Networks
Effect and Need of Compensatory Networks, Types: Lead Compensator; Lag Compensator and Lag-Lead Compensator, PID and Modified PID Controllers, Introduction to Digital Controllers: PLC and PAC Type Controllers
• State-Space Analysis
Conventional Control verses Modern Control Theory, Concept of State-Space Representation, Realizations of Transfer Functions; Diagnosis, and Solution of State-Space Equations; transition Matrix, Stability Criteria: Observability and Controllability of Linear Systems.
Evolution of Digital Design Methodology through SSI, MSI, LSI and VLSI technologies; Emergence of Programmable Digital Systems based on Standard Hardware; Microprocessor as the Basic Building Block for Digital design; Essential Ingredients of a Microprocessor; Datapath Design; Control Unit design; Microprogramming; Pipelining; Memory Organization – Cache and Virtual Memory; Input/Output Organization; Interrupts and DMA; Architecture and Programming of the 8051 Microcontroller.
Experiments will include Microprocessor building blocks – both in actual hardware and in verilog simulation; 8051 trainer kits and simulators along with basic hands-on training of MPU/MCU, programming and their use in real world problems.
Introduction to communication networks. Switching: Circuit switching, Packet switching, Message switching, Cell switching, Permanent virtual circuit, Switched virtual circuit. Transmission Medium: Copper cable, Shielded twisted pair, UTP, Coaxial cable, Optical fiber cable. Telephone communication. Data Communication: OSI layers. Data Link layer: HDLC, Multiple access control- ALHO, Polling, CSMA/CD, Token passing. LAN: Ethernet- 10 to 100BaseT, Gigabit, 40 Gigabit, 10Base2, 10Base5, 10Base F, Token ring, FDDI, Repeater, Bridge, Router, Gateway. WAN: Packet switch network- X.25, Frame relay, ATM. Broadband Access Technology: ISDN, Cable modem, xDSL. Internet Protocol: TCP/IP, UDP, IPv4, IP
Theory (and related laboratory experiments) in the following broad topics
Power-Electronic Devices: Construction and characteristics of Power diode, Thyristor, TRIAC, MOSFET and IGBT.
Rectifiers (AC to DC converters): Study of single phase AC to DC controlled rectifier, three phase AC to DC controlled rectifier, application of AC to DC rectifiers in HVDC transmission and DC motor control.
Switched mode power supplies (DC to DC converters): Study of non-isolated buck, boost and buck-boost type DC to DC converters, Isolated DC to DC converters: forward converter and fly back converter.
Inverters (DC to AC converters): DC to single phase AC conversion, DC to three phase AC conversion, Different types of pole voltages, PWM Inverter, PWM techniques – Sine wave PWM (SPWM), hysteresis control based PWM, variable-voltage variable-frequency inverter application in AC motor drive.
AC to AC converters: phase angle control keeping frequency unchanged, AC chopper, cyclo-converter.
The main objective of the course is to study the performance of a power system network under steady state and Transient conditions. This course introduces formation of Z bus and Y bus of a transmission line, power flow studies by various methods. It also deals with short circuit analysis and analysis of power system for steady state and transient stability.
UNIT –I Load flow Studies (Steady state Analysis)
Formation of Ybus for load flow studies, Necessity of Power Flow Studies – Data for
Power Flow Studies – Derivation of Static load flow equations – Load flow solutions using Gauss Seidel Method: Acceleration Factor, Load flow solution with and without PV buses, Algorithm and Flowchart. Numerical Load flow Solution for Simple Power Systems (Max.3Buses): Determination of Bus Voltages, Injected Active and Reactive Powers (Sample One Iteration only) and finding Line Flows/Losses for the given Bus Voltages. Newton Raphson Method in Rectangular and Polar Co-Ordinates Form: Load Flow Solution with or without PV Busses Derivation of Jacobian Elements, Algorithm and Flowchart. Decoupled and Fast Decoupled Methods. Comparison of Different Methods – DC load flow.
UNIT – II Short Circuit Analysis (Transient analysis)
Formation of ZBus: Partial network, Algorithm for the Modification of ZBus Matrix for addition element for the following cases: Addition of element from a new bus to reference, Addition of element from a new bus to an old bus, Addition of element between an old bus to reference and Addition of element between two old busses (Derivations and Numerical Problems).Modification of Z Bus for the changes in network (Problems)
Per Unit System of Representation. Per Unit equivalent reactance network of a three phase Power System, Numerical Problems. Symmetrical fault Analysis: Short Circuit
Current and MVA Calculations, Fault levels, Application of Series Reactors, Numerical Problems.
UNIT –III Short Circuit Analysis2 (Transient analysis)
Symmetrical Component Theory: Symmetrical Component Transformation, Positive,
Negative and Zero sequence components: Voltages, Currents and Impedances.
Sequence Networks: Positive, Negative and Zero sequence Networks, Numerical
Problems. Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis: LG, LL, LLG faults with and without fault impedance, numerical problems
UNIT –IV Power System Steady State Stability Analysis
Elementary concepts of Steady State, Dynamic and Transient Stabilities.
Description of: Steady State Stability Power Limit, Transfer Reactance, Synchronizing Power Coefficient, Power Angle Curve and Determination of Steady State Stability and Methods to improve steady state stability.
UNIT –V Power System Transient State Stability Analysis
Derivation of Swing Equation. Determination of Transient Stability by Equal Area
Criterion, Application of Equal Area Criterion, Critical Clearing Angle Calculation.
Solution of Swing Equation: Point by Point Method. Methods to improve Stability
Application of Auto Reclosing and Fast Operating Circuit Breakers
Embedded Systems Hardware
Recent Trends In Electrical Engineering
One of the main objectives of this course is to prepare students for Final year projects in VLSI and Microelectronics area and for those who are planning for research/VLSI industry oriented career (MS/PhD and core semiconductor industries etc,).
The broad topics that will be covered in this course: Introduction to VLSI, MOSFET basics, short channel MOS issues, CMOS basic flow, Layout and design rules, basic electrical parameters, Scaling rules, Design of digital and combinational blocks, emerging device technologies trends as per ITRS.
• Introduction to Electric Drives: What is Electric Drive? What are its advantages? Different components of Electric Drive, Different types of Electric Drives.
• Dynamics of Electric Drives: Fundamentals of speed-torque relations, multi-quadrant operation in speed-torque plane, Nature and classification of load torques, Calculation of time and energy spent in transient operations, steady state stability of drives
• Control of Electric Drives: Steady-state and transient operation of drives, speed and torque control, different kinds of closed loop control of electric drives, sensors required for closed loop speed control.
• Selection of Motor and Drives: Different kinds of motors used in drives, motor power and duty cycle ratings, motors suitable for continuous or intermittent operation of drives
• DC Motor Drives: Overview of different types of dc motors and their torque-speed characteristics, starting and braking methods of dc motors, conventional speed control methods, modern speed control methods using power electronic converters, time and energy loss calculations during starting and braking of separately excited dc motor.
• Induction Motor Drives: Overview of 3-phase Induction motor torque-speed characteristics, squirrel-cage and slip-ring induction motor, different types of starting and braking of induction motor, time and energy loss calculations in transient operation of induction motor, Speed control of 3-phase induction motor using conventional methods and using power electronic converters, V/f control and slip power recovery based control of induction motor speed and torque, torque-speed characteristics and speed control of single phase induction motor.
• Synchronous Motor Drives: Overview of synchronous motor operation and speed control.
• Brushless DC motor, Switched Reluctance Motor &Stepper Motor Drives: Construction, operation and control of brushless dc motor, switched reluctance motor and stepper motor
(1) Experiments based on Conventional Methods of starting, braking and speed control of DC Motors, Slip-ring and Squirrel-cage induction motors, Synchronous Motors.
(2) AC to DC converter based speed control of DC motor
(3) DC to DC chopper based speed control of DC motor
(4) Constant V/f control of 3-phase ac motors
(5) Brushless DC motor and Switched Reluctance Motor controls
Major Project 1
Major Project 2
Digital Signal Processing
Core course for all B.Tech. Optional for B.Sc. (Research) Chemistry. Not open as UWE.
Credits (Lec:Tut:Lab)= 3:1:0 (3 lectures and 1 tutorial weekly)
Prerequisites: Class XII Mathematics.
Overview: In this course we study multi-variable calculus. Concepts of derivatives and integration will be developed for higher dimensional spaces. This course has direct applications in most engineering applications.
Past Instructors: Ajit Kumar, Sneh Lata
Core course for all B.Tech. Programs. Optional for B.Sc. (Research) Chemistry. Not available as UWE.
Credits (Lec:Tut:Lab)= 3:1:0 (3 lectures and 1 tutorial weekly)
Prerequisites: Class XII Mathematics
Overview: We will study Ordinary Differential Equations which are a powerful tool for solving many science and engineering problems. This course also covers some basic linear algebra which is needed for systems of ODEs.
Past Instructors: Ajit Kumar, Neha Gupta
The aim of this course is to bridge the gap between the various boards across the country at 10+2 level and bring everyone at the standard undergraduate level. All the engineering branches have their origin in the basic physical sciences. In this course we aim to understand the basic physical laws and to develop skills for application of various physical concepts to the science and engineering through problem solving. This will involve the use of elementary calculus like differentiation and integration.
Mechanics: The inertial reference frames, Newton’s laws of motion in vector notation, Conservation of energy, Application of Newton’s laws of motion, Dynamical stability of systems: Potential energy diagram, Collisions: Impulse, conservation of energy and linear, momentum, Conservation of angular momentum and rotation of rigid bodies in plane Thermal Physics: Averages, probability and probability distributions, Thermal equilibrium and macroscopic variables, Pressure of an ideal gas from Newton’s laws - the kinetic theory of gases. Maxwell’s velocity distribution, Laws of Thermodynamics and the statistical origin of the second law of thermodynamics, Application of thermodynamics: Efficiency of heat engines and air-conditioners, Thermodynamics of batteries and rubber bands
This is a continuation of PHY 101 and is meant for engineers and non-physics majors. The course will introduce students to Electricity and Magnetism, Maxwell’s equations, Light as an electromagnetic wave, and Wave optics.
Vector calculus: Gradient, Divergence, Curl and fundamental theorems of vector calculus. Basic laws in electricity and magnetism, Classical image problem, displacement current and continuity equation, Maxwell’s Equations, electromagnetic wave equation and its propagation in free space, conducting media and dielectric medium, Poynting theorem, Electromagnetic spectrum.
Interference of light waves: Young’s double slit experiment, displacement of fringes, Interference in thin films
Diffraction: Fresnel’s and Fraunhofer’s class of diffraction, diffraction from single, double & N- Slits, Gratings.
Polarization: Concept of Polarization in electromagnetic waves, types of polarized waves.
Major Elective - 15 credits
• Introduction and Overview of Digital Communication Systems and Principles, Model, Analog vs. Digital Communication, Sampling, Quantization, PCM
• Concept of Probability and Random variable: characterization and Pdfs
• Geometric representation of Signal waveforms: Gram Schmidt procedure, Constellations
• Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: performance analysis and comparison
• Synchronization and Channel equalization
• Digital Transmission: ISI, Matched filter, Maximum Likelihood detector, Transmitter, Receiver designs
• Channel capacity, Coding and Decoding, Source Coding, Information Measure, Introduction to Error control: Viterbi, Linear Block codes, Convolution Codes, Hamming, and Turbo codes.
• Introduction to Multiple Access Communication, Spread spectrum communications, OFDM
UNIT I- Electrical power Generation
Generation of electrical energy: Basic structure of power system; demand of electrical system – base load, peak load; controlling power balance between generator and load, advantages of interconnected system; Thermal power plant – general layout, turbines, alternators, excitation system, governing system, efficiency; Hydel power plant – typical layout, turbines, alternators; Nuclear power plant – principle of energy conversion, types of nuclear reactors; brief overview of renewable energy sources.
UNIT II – Introduction to Transmission and Distribution in electric power system
Structure of electric power system - different operating voltages of generation, transmission and distribution – advantage of higher operating voltage for AC transmission. An introduction to EHV AC transmission, HVDC transmission and FACTs. Mechanical design of transmission line between towers – sag and tension calculations using approximate equations taking into account the effect of ice and wind.
UNIT III - Transmission Line Parameters
Parameters of resistance, inductance and capacitance calculations - single and three phase transmission lines - single and double circuits - solid, stranded and bundled conductors - symmetrical and unsymmetrical spacing – transposition of lines - concepts of GMR and GMD - skin and proximity effects - interference with neighboring communication circuits. Corona discharge characteristics – critical voltage and loss. (Simple diagrams of typical towers and conductors for 400, 220 and 110 kV operations)
UNIT IV- Modelling and Performance of Transmission Lines
Transmission line classification - short line, medium line and long line - equivalent circuits – Ferranti effect - surge impedance, attenuation constant and phase constant - voltage regulation and transmission efficiency - real and reactive power flow in lines – power circle diagrams – shunt and series compensation. An introduction to power angle diagram - surge-impedance loading, load ability limits based on thermal loading; angle and voltage stability considerations.
UNIT V- Insulators and Cables
Classification of insulators for transmission and distribution purpose – voltage distribution in insulator string and grading - improvement of string efficiency. Underground cables - constructional features of LT and HT cables – insulation resistance, capacitance, dielectric stress and grading – tan δ and power loss - thermal characteristics.
UNIT VI- Substation, Grounding System and Distribution System
Classification, functions and major components of substations. Bus-bar arrangements - substation bus schemes - single bus, double bus with double breaker, double bus with single breaker, main and transfer bus, ring bus, breaker-and-a-half with two main buses, double bus-bar with bypass isolators. Importance of earthing in a substation. Qualitative treatment to neutral grounding and earthing practices in substations. Feeders, distributors and service mains. DC distributor – 2-wire and 3-wire, radial and ring main distribution. AC distribution – single phase and three phase 4-wire distribution.
Circuit breakers: Air circuit breakers, oil circuit breakers, vacuum circuit breakers, SF6 gas circuit breakers, transient rate of rise of recovery voltage, arc interruption theories, capacitor switching, inrush current of a transformer, Relays: Overcurrent protection, differential protection, protection of transformers, protection of generators, carrier aided protection of transmission lines, distance protection schemes; impedance relay, mho relay. Microprocessor based relays.
Introduction of Microwaves and their applications. Waveguides: Rectangular Waveguides, Solution of Wave equation in TE and TM modes. Power transmission and Power losses. Excitation of modes in Rectangular waveguides, circular waveguides: Basic idea of TE and TM modes, field patterns, TEM mode of propagation. Waveguide Components: Scattering matrix representation of networks, Rectangular cavity and circular cavity resonators. Waveguide Tees, Magic Tees. Hybrid rings. Waveguide corners, Bends and twists, Directional couplers, Circulators and isolators, Windows, Irises, tuning screws. Measurement: frequency, Wave length, VSWR, Impedance, power. Microwave Tubes: Klystron, Reflex Klystron, Magnetron, TWT, BWO: Their schematic, Principle of operation, performance characteristics and application. Semiconductor Devices: Construction, Operation and Practical applications of PIN diode, varactor and Tunnel diode, Gunn diode, IMPATT, TRAPTT diodes, Maser MIC: Introduction to microstrip lines, Parallel Striplines, Coplanar striplines, Shielded striplines, Slot lines, Transitions, Bends and Discontinuities.
Introduction to Special machines and their applications in different industries- Evaluation of electrical machines, electrical machine design fundamentals, three phase and single phase Induction machines, Synchronous machines- Synchronous generators and motors. Special machines- Design, constructional and control aspects of permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PM BLDC), permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), switched reluctance motor (SRM) and Stepper motor.
Electric breakdown phenomenon in gases, liquid, and solid insulation materials, generation of high A.C. and D.C. voltages, generation of impulse voltages and currents, measurement of high voltages and currents, high voltage testing of electrical equipments, transients in power systems (lightning and switching induced transients), insulation coordination.
Numerical computation of the electric field intensity in homogenous and multi-dielectric isotropic materials by finite element method (FEM).
Extra-high voltage (EHV) and ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission systems, mitigation of audible noise, radio interference, corona loss, and high voltage gradients.
Modelling and analysis of HVDC systems, modelling and analysis of flexible A.C. transmission systems (FACTS).
Introduction to satellite systems & application: History, evolution of satellites, evolution of launch vehicles. Satellite orbits: Orbital parameters, earth’s azimuth & elevation angles. Satellite Sub systems: Mechanical subsystem, propulsion subsystem, thermal control subsystem, power supply sub system, Attitude & orbit control, Telemetry, tracking & command subsystem, Antenna subsystem, Payload. Communication Techniques: Type of the signals, Modulation techniques, multiplexing techniques, Multiple Access techniques- FDMA, SCPC, MCPC, TDMA, CDMA, SDMA. Satellite Link Design: Transmission equation, link design parameters, frequency considerations, propagation considerations, noise considerations, interferences, G/T ratio, Link budget, VSAT. Navigation satellites, Global Positioning System.
• Evolution of mobile communication systems. 1G, 2G, 2.5G & 3G systems. IMT2000, FDD, TDD, FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SDMA.
• Introduction, Frequency reuse, Channel assignment strategies, Handoff strategies, Interference and system capacity, Improving coverage & capacity in cellular system
• GSM: GSM standards and architecture, GSM Radio aspects, typical call flow sequences in GSM, security aspects. GPRS, UMTS.
• CDMA standards: Spread spectrum, direct sequence and frequency hop spread spectrum, IS-95 CDMA architecture, forward link and reverse link.
• Infrastructure based and adhoc networks, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b. Bluetooth.
Programmable logic devices such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), have become a major component of digital system design these days. The Course starts with an Introduction to the scope of Reconfigurable platforms and applications along with a complete FPGA design flow. Then use of a hardware description language (HDL; in particular Verilog) for the specification, synthesis, simulation, and exploration of principles of register transfer level (RTL) designs. In this class the students learn how to write HDL models that can be automatically synthesized into integrated circuits using FPGAs. Details of techniques to resolve common pitfalls in designing with FPGAs and best practices incorporated in Industry will be dealt with few case studies. Laboratory and homework exercises include writing HDL models of combinational and sequential circuits, synthesizing models, performing simulation, writing test bench modules, and synthesizing designs to an FPGA. The course also contains lab work and is based on a sequence of Verilog design examples leading to a final group project.
• CMOS Fundamentals
MOS Device Physics, Design of MOS switch, MOS diode/ active resistor
• Amplifier Design
MOS amplifiers, Common-Source stage (with resistive load, diode connected load, current-source load, triode load, source degeneration), source follower, common-gate stage, cascode stage.
• Differential Amplifiers
Differential amplifier, Single-ended operation, differential operation, basic differential pair, large-signal and small-signal behavior, common-mode response, differential pair with MOS loads,
• Bias Circuits and References
Passive and Active current mirrors, Bandgap References.
• Frequency Response
Frequency response of CS stage, CD stage, CG stage, cascade stage, differential pair. Feedback Topologies, Operational amplifiers: one stage op-amp, two-stage CMOS op-amp, Gain Boosting, Stability and Frequency Compensation
GSM, SS7 & IN Signalling Fundamentals
Applied Machine Learning
Unit-1: Automotive systems, Design Cycle and Automotive Industry Overview
a) Automotive systems- Overview of automotive industry, leading players, automotive supply chain, global challenges b) Introduction to modern automotive systems and need of electronics in automobiles c) Automotive transmissions; Transmission fundamentals, Types- MT,AT,CVT and DCT (dual Clutch Transmission) d) Vehicle Braking Fundamentals; Vehicle dynamics during braking, Hydraulic brake system components, Introduction to ABS e) Steering Control- Fundamentals, Electric Power steering f) Overview of Hybrid Vehicles- ECU Design- V- model development, Components of ECU, Examples of ECU on Chassis, Infotainment , body electronics and cluster
Unit-2 Automotive Sensors and Actuators
Accelerometer Sensors, Wheel Speed Sensors, Brake pressure sensors, seat occupancy sensors, engine speed, steering wheel angle, vehicle speed sensor, Throttle position sensor, temperature sensor, mass air flow rate sensor etc Actuators- Solenoids, Various types of electric motors, and piezo electric force generators Example- Relays, Solenoids and motors, sensors in airbag systems, Chassis control system, Automatic transmission system.
Unit-3 Microcontrollers/ Microprocessors in automotive domain, Communication Protocols, Infotainment Systems
Microcontrollers/ Microprocessors in Automotive domain, Critical review of Microprocessor, Microcontroller and DSP development (emphasis on ports, timers/ Counters, interrupts, Watchdog timers, PWM) Criteria to choose right microcontroller/ Processor, Automotive grade processors- Renesas, Quorivva, Infineon, Development of control algorithms for different automotive systems. Communication Protocols: CAN, LIN, Flex RAY, MOST, Ethernet, D2B and DSI, Communication Interface with ECU’s , Interfacing techniques and interfacing with infotainment systems, Infotainment Systems: Application of Telematics in Auomotive domain, GPS and GPRS (GPS navigation, integrated hands-free cell phones, wireless safety communications and automatic driving assistance systems all are covered under the telematics umbrella)
Unit-4 – Automotive Control System and model based Development
Control System Approach in Automotive: Digital and analog control methods, modelling of linear system, System responses, Model based Development: MATLAB, SIMULINK, SIMSCAPE Tool boxes.
Unit-5 – Safety Systems in Automobiles and Diagnostic Systems
Active Safety Systems- ABS, TCS, ESP, Brake Assit etc., Passive Systems- Airbag Systems, Advance driver assistance system, Examples of ADAS- Collision Warning, Automatic Cruise Control, Head light control, Connected cars technology towards Autonomous vehicles etc., Functional Safety, Diagnostics – OBD , Off board Diagnostics etc
Unit-6 – AUTOSAR fundamentals
Introduction and Overview of AUTOSAR, AUTOSAR RTE and SWE, AUTOSAR Diagnostics, AUTOSAR Integration methodology, AUTOSAR Network management, operating System and partial networking, MCAL , ETHERNET
Course description not available.